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符號、問題、創造:從“1”開始——關于“數的認識”教材編寫隨想
作者:智慧數學研究所 陳士文 點擊數:1996 更新時間:2016年9月3日 文章錄入:智慧數學
   

符號、問題、創造:從“1”開始

——關于“數的認識”教材編寫隨想

智慧數學研究所   陳士文

江蘇教育出版社出版的《義務教育教科書  數學》一年級上冊第五單元編排了“認識10以內的數”,教材單元開端部分是這樣編寫的:


圖片呈現的是第一課時的教學內容,仔細揣摩教材意圖,我們發現:

教材編寫突出數學與生活的聯系,依據數來源于數(shǔ),通過口、手一致和物、數對應的方式,教學活動沿著數數、認數、讀數、寫數依次展開。

教材編寫者還擬定這節課的教學重點是“數的含義”,教學的難點是“寫數”。

如何落實好教學的重點呢?“寫數”是教學的難點嗎?

“數的含義”僅在口、手一致和物、數對應上下功夫嗎?我們可以開闊視野,從數(物)的存在,數(符號)的多樣,數(符號)來自于心(想出來的),數(符號)出自于手(寫出來的)等方面,感悟數的含義。

“寫數”對小學生而言可不是一日之功,一開始哪怕寫的歪歪扭扭,并不漂亮規范,也無妨。即便“寫數”是難點,也不是在一堂課上突破。數字“123”可以是宋體,也可以是兒童體,寫法稍自由寬松一點,不宜一下子提出臨帖刻板的要求,“寫數”時要引導感受寫(創造)的樂趣。

鑒于上述隨想,對“數的認識”有了如下的編排設計:

一、找找哪些物品是“1”?

出示第一幅物品圖,圖中有一支筆、兩個球、三朵花、一個蘋果、三本書、五根香蕉等等,要求學生找出是“1”的物品。

出示第二幅物品圖,圖中有一個蘋果、一盤蘋果(疊放在一起,不宜數清是幾個)、一筐蘋果(疊放在一起,不宜數清是幾個)、兩盒鉛筆、三袋糖果等等,引導學生說出是“1”的單個物品或整體包裝。

二、看看“1”是什么樣的?

出示數字阿拉伯數字圖。

出示羅馬數字圖。


三、想想“1”是怎么來的?

出示寫“1”的過程圖,從起筆到收筆,有教師在黑板上寫的,有學生在方格中寫的。有教師在大操場上畫的大“1”,有小朋友在一張紙上描的小“1”。

展現“1”出現的過程圖,有刻寫印章中的“1”,有裁剪圖案中的“1”,有美術變體的“1”,有勾邊空心的“1”。

四、試試數字“1”怎么寫?

一種是規范體,從描紅到獨寫。還可以出現手寫體、兒童體,讓學生自由選擇試寫、模仿。

五、猜猜幾個“1”怎么辦?

我們找到了“1”的物品,如果有幾個“1”怎么辦?你會畫圖表示嗎?你會寫出來嗎?你知道怎么讀嗎?你聽說過它的過去嗎?

比照原先的教材,現在的編排呈現出三個特點:

一是以符號為主線組織素材。雖然也是通過口、手一致和物、數對應的方式,教學活動也離不開數數、認數、讀數、寫數等活動,但凸顯了符號(數字“1”)意識,從“1”開始,教材就引領學生把生活的具象逐步走向數學的抽象。特別是找找哪些物品是“1”的圖片中,有一盤蘋果、一筐蘋果(疊放在一起,不宜數清是幾個)的“1”,素材來自生活場景,教材分層提升到數學表達(數字“1”)。

二是以問題為主線推進學習。1”是什么樣的?為什么是“1”?“1”是怎么來的?兩個“1”怎么辦?教材從“是什么?為什么?怎么樣?”等方面逐層推進教學活動,在數(shǔ)數過程中,激發思考的欲望,第一課時著重圍繞“1”,通過問題來理解數的含義。既有歷史縱深感,又有學生參與性。

三是以創造為主線提升感悟。現在的編排,對符號的引入不再有灌輸的傾向,在符號的書寫上減輕了訓練的負擔,代之而來的是不同風格的數字體、不同方式的數字寫法,從中體驗創造的樂趣。思考有兩個“1”怎么辦?為“2”的教學留下接口和空間,讓學生有充分想象的創造自由。

綜上,從“1”開始,關于“數的認識”的教學,不能把功夫下在書寫技能的訓練達標上,固然“寫數”對剛剛入學的一年級學生來說是難點,但此難點并非要在一節課上解決,此時更主要的是感受感悟符號的創造。“數的含義”是教學重點,而“1”的含義是直觀淺顯的,也非難事,重點是在口、手一致與物、數對應的過程中,培育學生的問題意識。

從數字“1”開始,培育和推動學生的符號意識、問題意識、創造意識。

   
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