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整體設計“認識小數”一課
作者:揚州市東花園小學 陳怡農 點擊數:3776 更新時間:2013年5月27日 文章錄入:陳士文
   

 

整體設計“認識小數”一課

揚州市東花園小學   陳怡農

三年級“認識小數”一課,是學生第一次認識小數,從學生熟悉的度量和價格情境入手來介紹小數,在五年級則要完整、深入學習小數的意義,如何合理又不越位的來處理三年級小數的認識,又能體現小數意義中的兩個要素,即一是小數與整數的同構關系,具體來說小數與整數一樣都是與整數一樣的位值概念,整數是朝“外”無限發展的,小數是朝“內”無限延伸的;二是小數與分數的等價關系,用分數的分子和分母(部分與整體)來解釋小數。我們做了一定的思考。

于是,我們設計了“認識小數”三個層面的理解,旨在完成建立數的進一步聯系、逐步抽象小數的認知、豐富內化小數的意義。

板塊一:激發沖突,建立數的聯系

    從度量跑道發現用卷尺丈量,1米、10米、100米,是以十進制的累積計數。在度量課桌長度,用米尺測量,卻發現結果不是整米數(比一米小),出示直尺放大圖,如何記錄課桌的長度?在0~1之間尋找“縫隙”,讓學生猜一猜把中間分成幾份?一份用什么數來表示?(分數),介紹還可以用小數對應表示。

      智慧心語:因為需要我們產生數,數擴大了我們認識數學的范圍。

    一方面我們從“外”擴充從“內”尋找建立起學生數的感覺和聯系,另一方面通過相同的十進制記數溝通起數的計量和聯系。

板塊二:數形結合,逐步抽象認知

由直尺圖——方格圖——數軸圖,逐步抽象出小數,正確建立小數的概念。


 

  智慧心語:整數、分數、小數,數與數之間有著緊密的聯系,相互的溝通。

  以單一直觀的數軸模型為抓手,逐步抽象出小數表示的意義,并從整數部分著眼不斷突破對小數的認識。

板塊三:還有什么,意義延伸拓展

還有什么——與元角價錢聯系

1.感受整數部分不是十幾、幾十的小數

2.再次通過不同的單位但相同的進率來使分數和小數聯系

還有什么——與數感聯系

1.生活中的運用:規定1.2米以下的兒童免票,1.21.5米半票,1.5米以上的兒童全票。小芳身高14分米,應該怎么買票?

2.猜一猜:小明的體重和身高。

還有什么——與小數的發展、與0.618黃金小數等特殊的小數歷史、文化聯系

智慧心語:小數雖“小”卻很“大”,小數打開了我們認識世界的另一扇窗。

第三板塊進行小數的意義鏈接,與不同單位之間的鏈接,與生活實際鏈接,體會小數的現實意義,進一步加深對小數意義的認知;與小數的文化鏈接,豐富小數的數學背景,拓寬學生的數學視野。

上述教學設計,從小數數學本質入手,整體溝通數之間的聯系,逐步加深對其意義的認識,不斷拓寬學生的數學視野,豐盈學生的數學智慧。

   
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